Selection of Generating Sets

Table of Contents

Generating sets are used as standby source of electrical power. It is also used where electric power supply is not available. It can also be used to provide peak load power requirements.

A generating set consists of reciprocating internal combustion engine to produce mechanical energy coupled to a.c. generator to convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy. The generator set also includes control equipment and load bearing and mounting components. The generator set may be supplied with acoustically treated enclosure to reduce sound.

Depending on portability, the generating sets are classified into following categories:

  1. Portable type - Available in capacities from 0.5 kVA to 5 kVA. These use highly inefficient 2 stroke petrol engines.
  2. Trolley mounted type - They are available in capacities up to 200 kVA. At higher capacities, designing trolley becomes difficult as vibration reduction poses challenges.
  3. Stationary / plinth mounted.

Selection of Engine

The engines used in generating sets are of two types:

  1. compression ignition engines.
  2. spark-ignition engines.

The following criterion is used in selection of engine:

  1. Power requirement
  2. Speed - Engines are classified into:
    • High speed having speeds more than 1500 min⁻¹. Here load buildup is very fast so it is useful in fluctuations.
    • Low speed having speeds less than 1000 min⁻¹. These sets are more heavy but are rugged but require low maintenance.
  3. Engine operating cycle - Engines are classified into -
    • Four stroke diesel having 90° power stroke.
    • Two stroke diesel having 180° power stroke. These engines are lighter in weight (around 70 % of 4 stroke) and so a very little fly wheel is required and its response to load change is very good at times around 100 %, but it is not in much use. It is being currently made by Detroit Corporation, USA.
  4. Governing of engine - Based on response of engine to sudden loading and frequency behaviour, the class of governing are -
    • A1: transient state change 0.5 %, steady state change 0.5 %
    • A2: transient state change 4 % (8 -12 s), steady state change 0.5 %
  5. Exhaust gas and noise emission
  6. Mass and dimension
  7. Cooling system
  8. Starting system
  9. Maintenance requirements
  10. Waste heat utilisation
Engine Model Numbers
CAPACITYCumminsKoelAshok LeylandCaterpillarGreavesVolvo Penta
15 kVAA/C HA 29419 BHP    
W/C RV218.7 BHP    
35 kVAA/C HA 49443 BHP    
45 kVAA/C HA 494 TC56 BHP  4 YDA MKII 56.1 BHP 
50 kVAA/C HA 69465 BHPALG 37055 KVA3114 T50 KVA4 YDAX MKII 65.8 BHP 
W/C RB 66 SR 170 BHP    
62.5 kVAA/C HA 694 TC SR 183 BHPALG 40062.5 KVA3114 T60 KVA6 YDA MK II84.3 BHP 
W/CN 495 GIRB66 SR II76 BHP  3 YDC MK III84 BHP 
70 kVAA/C HA 694 TC SR I83 BHPALG 41175 KVA3114 T70 KVA6 YDA MK II84.3 BHP 
W/CN 495 G75 KVA   4 YDX MK III93 BHP 
100 kVAA/C RB 66 TA127 BHP    
W/CNT 495 G127 BHP ALG 680110 KVA3116 T100 KVA4 YDC MK III126 BHPTD 610 G115 KVA
125 kVAA/C 6 SL 9088 T154 BHPALG 680 TC125 KVA3116 TA125 KVA6 YDC MK III156 BHPTD 610 G125 KVA
W/CNTC 495 G154 BHP   TD 2V6 156 BHP 
150 kVAA/CNT 743 G1205 BHP  3280 T175 KVATBD2 V6 MK I197 BHPTWD 610G160 KVATD 710 G160 KVA
W/C 6 SL 9088 TA198 BHP    
180 kVAW/CNT 743 G231 BHP  3306 TTBD 2V8230 BHPTWD 710 G180 KVA
200 kVAW/CNTA 743 G255 BHP  3306 T200 KVATBD 2V8 MK I253 BHPTD 1010 G200 KVATWD 710 G200 KVA
225 kVAW/CNTA 855 GI280 BHP  3306 B TA225 KVA TWD 1010G225 KVA
250 kVAW/CNT 855 G5 306306 BHPNT 855 G306 BHP  3306 B TA250 KVATD2 V12313 BHPTAD 1010 250 KVATD 1210G250 KVA
300 kVAW/CNTA 855 G2340 BHP  3406 BT300 KVATBD2 V12 MKI375 BHPTWD 1210G300 KVA
320 kVAW/CKT 1150 G380 BHP  3406 BTA350 KVATBD2 V12 MK2396 BHPTWD 1211G320 KVA
380 kVAW/CKTA 1150G450 BHP  3408 BTA400 KVATBD 3V12453 BHPTAD 1230G385 KVATWD 1630G415 KVA
500 kVAW/CVTA 28 G614 BHP  3412 T650 KVATBD4 V12604 BHPTAD 1630G500 KVATAD 1631G500 KVA

Specifications for Engine: 

  • IS 10000-4:1980 — Methods of tests for internal combustion engines — Part 4: Declaration of power, efficiency, fuel consumption and lubricating oil consumption.
  • ISO 3046-1:2002 — Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Performance — Part 1: Declaration of power, fuel and lubricating oil consumptions, and test methods — Additional requirements for engines for general use
  • IS/ISO 8528:2005 — Reciprocating internal combustion engine driven alternating current generating sets.

IS Ratings: 

  • IS Rating A - Fixed speed engine (Built up with 10 % overload capacity to take sudden jerks)
  • IS Rating B - Variable speed engine (They do not have any overload capacity).

Selection of a.c. Generator

The generators used are of two types:

  1. synchronous generator
  2. asynchronous generator

Selection of generator depends on following criterion:

  1. Output voltage, frequency, and capacity.
  2. Generator design and enclosure - above 60 kVA, brushless generator is mandatory.
  3. Number of bearings required—single bearing or double bearing
  4. Voltage characteristics - the generator in generally equipped with suitable AVR and line filters.
  5. Parallel-operation consideration
  6. Maintenance requirement
Generator Model Numbers
CapacityKIRLOSKARNGEFCROMPTONKELAVK-SEG STAMFORD
15 kVA   TA1610S4  
32.5 kVA4AB200/G2SGBP225Z4/4G2R160MBTA1810L7DSG29M32.5UC22C2
40 kVA4AB200/H2SGBP225Z6/4G2R160MBTA2015S3DSG29L40UC22C2
45 kVA 4AB200/H2SGBP225Z8/4G2R200SA/4 DSG29L45UC22C2
50 kVA4AB200/J2SGBP225Z10/4G2R200SB/4TA2015M6DSG29L50UC22D2
62.5 kVA4AB225/B2SGBP225Z12/4G2R200SD/4TA2265S3DSG36M62.5UC22F2
70 kVA4AB225/D2SGBP225Z14/4G2R200SD/4TA2265S4DSG36M70UC22G2
100 kVA4AB250/H2SGBP250Z1/4G2R200MD/4TA2510S3DSG36L100UC27C2
125 kVA4AB250/H2SGBP250Z4/4NRF250/4TA2510S4DSG36L125UC27E2
160 kVA4AB280/S2SGBP280Z2/4NRF280/1TA2510L7DSG43M160UC27F2
180 kVA4AB280/M2SGBP250Z4/4NRF280/2TA2810S3DSG43M180UC27H2
200 kVA4AB280/M2SGBP250Z6/4NRF280/2TA2810M5DSG43L200HC4C
225 kVA4AB280/L2SGBP280Z8/4  DSG43L225HC4C
250 kVA4AB280/L2SGBP315Z1/4 TA2810L7DSG43L250HC4C
300 kVA4AB315/P2SGBP315Z2/4 TA3160S4DSG52M300HC4D, HC4E
320 kVA4AB315/P2SGBP315Z4/4 TA3160M7DSG52M320HC4E
380 kVA4AB315/R2SGBP355Z2/4 TA3160L8DSG52M380HC4F
500 kVA4AB355/B2SGBP400Z1/4 TA3560M5DSG52L500HC5D

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